Elevated pro-inflammatory biomarkers and cytokines are associated with morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF). Preclinical and clinical studies have shown multiple inflammatory mechanisms causing cardiac remodeling, dysfunction and chronic failure. Therapeutics in trials targeting the immune response in heart failure and its effects did not result in evident benefits regarding clinical endpoints and mortality. This review elaborates pathways of immune cytokines in pathogenesis and worsening of heart failure in clinical and cellular settings. Besides the well-known mechanisms of immune activation and inflammation in atherosclerosis causing ischemic cardiomyopathy or myocarditis, attention is focused on other mechanisms leading to heart failure such as transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The knowledge of the pathogenesis in heart failure and amyloidosis on a molecular and cellular level might help to highlight new disease defining biomarkers and to lead the way to new therapeutic targets.
Research Areas and Centers
- Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)