We have recently established that human norovirus (HuNoV) replicates efficiently in zebrafish larvae after inoculation of a clinical sample into the yolk, providing a simple and robust in vivo system in which to study HuNoV. In this Protocol Extension, we present a detailed description of virus inoculation by microinjection, subsequent daily monitoring and harvesting of larvae, followed by viral RNA quantification. This protocol can be used to study viral replication of genogroup (G)I and GII HuNoVs in vivo within 3–4 d. Additionally, we describe how to evaluate the in vivo antiviral effect and toxicity of small molecules using HuNoV-infected zebrafish larvae, in multi-well plates and without the need for specific formulations. This constitutes a great advantage for drug discovery efforts, as no specific antivirals or vaccines currently exist to treat or prevent norovirus gastroenteritis.
Research Areas and Centers
- Centers: Center for Structural and Cell Biology (CSCM/ZMSZ)