Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) in Vascular Research: from Two- to Three-Dimensional Organoids

Anja Trillhaase, Marlon Maertens, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Jeanette Erdmann*

*Corresponding author for this work


Stem cell technology has been around for almost 30 years and in that time has grown into an enormous field. The stem cell technique progressed from the first successful isolation of mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the 1990s, to the production of human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the early 2000s, to finally culminate in the differentiation of pluripotent cells into highly specialized cell types, such as neurons, endothelial cells (ECs), cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and lung and intestinal cells, in the last decades. In recent times, we have attained a new height in stem cell research whereby we can produce 3D organoids derived from stem cells that more accurately mimic the in vivo environment. This review summarizes the development of stem cell research in the context of vascular research ranging from differentiation techniques of ECs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to the generation of vascularized 3D organoids. Furthermore, the different techniques are critically reviewed, and future applications of current 3D models are reported. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
JournalStem Cell Reviews and Reports
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)1741-1753
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 10.2021

Research Areas and Centers

  • Research Area: Medical Genetics


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