The ability to rescue oocytes and mature them in vitro would provide invaluable information about folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation and could provide oocytes for infertile women. In vitro growth (IVG) of follicles and in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes are challenging especially in the human because folliculogenesis is a lengthy process with many complex cellular changes in the oocyte and its surrounding follicle cells. Reports have been published on live births in mice after maturation and fertilization. This technique is still in its infancy especially for use in humans. A few live births have resulted from IVM of immature human oocytes aspirated from small antral follicles. Furthermore, it is possible to grow primordial follicles to preantral stages in slices of ovarian tissue and support antrum formation in isolated preantral follicles. Today we are still along way from growing and maturing preantral follicles to preovulatory stages in vitro, but these techniques may revolutionize assisted reproduction in the future.