Emergence of chronic inflammation in the urogenital tract induced by Chlamydia trachomatis infection in females is a long-standing concern. To avoid the severe sequelae of C. trachomatis infection, such as pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), ectopic pregnancies, and tubal infertility, antibiotic strategies aim to eradicate the pathogen even in asymptomatic and uncomplicated infections. Although first-line antimicrobials have proven successful for the treatment of C. trachomatis infection, treatment failures have been observed in a notable number of cases. Due to the obligate intracellular growth of C. trachomatis, reliable antimicrobial susceptibility assays have to consider environmental conditions and host cell-specific factors. Oxygen concentrations in the female urogenital tract are physiologically low and decrease further during an inflammatory process. We compared MIC testing and time-kill curves (TKC) for doxycycline, azithromycin, rifampin, and moxifloxacin under hypoxia (2% O2) and normoxia (20% O2). While low oxygen availability only moderately decreased the antichlamydial activity of azithromycin in conventional MIC testing (0.08 μg/ml versus 0.04 μg/ml; P < 0.05), TKC analyses revealed profound divergences for antibiotic efficacies between the two conditions. Thus, C. trachomatis was significantly less rapidly killed by doxycycline and azithromycin under hypoxia, whereas the efficacies of moxifloxacin and rifampin remained unaffected using concentrations at therapeutic serum levels. Chemical inhibition of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR-1), but not multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1), restored doxycycline activity against intracellular C. trachomatis under hypoxia. We suggest careful consideration of tissue-specific characteristics, including oxygen availability, when testing antimicrobial activities of antibiotics against intracellular bacteria.
Research Areas and Centers
- Academic Focus: Center for Infection and Inflammation Research (ZIEL)