Calpains, also called calcium activated neutral proteases (CANP), are expressed ubiquitously. They are intracellular, non-lysosomal cytoplasmic cysteine endopeptidases. Calcium is required for their activation. Their endogenous specific inhibitor is calpastatin, which is expressed ubiquitously and coexists within cells besides calpain. When calcium is present, calpastatin and calpain attach to each other inhibiting the protease. The calpain system plays an important role in many processes including apoptosis, necrosis, ischemia formation and exocytosis. So far, many reports exist on studies about the influence of calpains in different tumors (skin, breast, renal cell and prostate cancers). The role of calpains in pathogenesis or further tumor progression has always been proved in related studies, but their exact function could not be demonstrated. So far, no studies on calpains being involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer have been published. In our study we focused on the expression of the enzymes calpain 1, calpain 2 and their inhibitor calpastatin in normal and malign ovarian tissue. Therefore, we performed immunohistochemical stainings of paraffin slices and evaluated staining intensity (SI), percentage of positive cells (PP) and immunoreactive score (IRS). We evaluated the correlation between enzyme expression in malign and benign ovarian tissues. In malignant ovarian tissue, we found decreased expression, staining intensity and immunoreactive score of calpastatin. With higher grading of the ovarian carcinoma, staining intensity and immunoreactive score of calpain 1 decreased. Staining intensity of calpain 2 in ovarian carcinoma decreased with increasing lymph node status. We clearly demonstrated differences between enzyme expressions in malign and benign tissue. This study could not find any specific function of calpains. Only few studies in the literature have been found that deal with calpain evaluation of ovarian cancer. Additional studies including more patients are required to elucidate the functional role and impact of calpain in tumors in detail.
|Journal||European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 01.12.2011|