Ideal Outcome After Pancreatoduodenectomy: A Transatlantic Evaluation of a Harmonized Composite Outcome Measure

Simone Augustinus, Tara M. MacKay, Bodil Andersson, Joal D. Beane, Olivier R. Busch, Elizabeth M. Gleeson, Bas G. Koerkamp, Tobias Keck, Hjalmar C. Van Santvoort, Bobby Tingstedt, Ulrich F. Wellner, Caroline Williamsson, Marc G. Besselink*, Henry A. Pitt*

*Corresponding author for this work


Objective: The aim of this study is to define and assess Ideal Outcome in the national or multicenter registries of North America, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Background: Assessing outcomes after pancreatoduodenectomy among centers and countries requires a broad evaluation that cannot be captured by a single parameter. Previously, 2 composite outcome measures (textbook outcome and optimal pancreatic surgery) for pancreatoduodenectomy have been described from Europe and the United States. These composites were harmonized into ideal outcome (IO). Methods: This analysis is a transatlantic retrospective study (2018-2020) of patients after pancreatoduodenectomy within the registries from North America, Germany, The Netherlands, and Sweden. After 3 consensus meetings, IO for pancreatoduodenectomy was defined as the absence of all 6 parameters: (1) in-hospital mortality, (2) severe complications - Clavien-Dindo ≥3, (3) postoperative pancreatic fistula - International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) grade B/C, (4) reoperation, (5) hospital stay >75th percentile, and (6) readmission. Outcomes were evaluated using relative largest difference (RLD) and absolute largest difference (ALD), and multivariate regression models. Results: Overall, 21,036 patients after pancreatoduodenectomy were included, of whom 11,194 (54%) reached IO. The rate of IO varied between 55% in North America, 53% in Germany, 52% in The Netherlands, and 54% in Sweden (RLD: 1.1, ALD: 3%, P<0.001). Individual components varied with an ALD of 2% length of stay, 4% for in-hospital mortality, 12% severe complications, 10% postoperative pancreatic fistula, 11% reoperation, and 9% readmission. Age, sex, absence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, body mass index, performance status, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, biliary drainage, absence of vascular resection, and histologic diagnosis were associated with IO. In the subgroup of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, country, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy also was associated with improved IO. Conclusions: The newly developed composite outcome measure "Ideal Outcome"can be used for auditing and comparing outcomes after pancreatoduodenectomy. The observed differences can be used to guide collaborative initiatives to further improve the outcomes of pancreatic surgery.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnals of Surgery
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)740-747
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 01.11.2023

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 205-25 General and Visceral Surgery


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