Hepatobiliary MR imaging with gadolinium-based contrast agents

Alex Frydrychowicz, Meghan G. Lubner, Jeffrey J. Brown, Elmar M. Merkle, Scott K. Nagle, Neil M. Rofsky, Scott B. Reeder*

*Corresponding author for this work
77 Citations (Scopus)


The advent of gadolinium-based "hepatobiliary" contrast agents offers new opportunities for diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and has triggered great interest for innovative imaging approaches to the liver and bile ducts. In this review article we discuss the imaging properties of the two gadolinium-based hepatobiliary contrast agents currently available in the U.S., gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoxetic acid, as well as important pharmacokinetic differences that affect their diagnostic performance. We review potential applications, protocol optimization strategies, as well as diagnostic pitfalls. A variety of illustrative case examples will be used to demonstrate the role of these agents in detection and characterization of liver lesions as well as for imaging the biliary system. Changes in MR protocols geared toward optimizing workflow and imaging quality are also discussed. It is our aim that the information provided in this article will facilitate the optimal utilization of these agents and will stimulate the reader's pursuit of new applications for future benefit.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)492-511
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 01.03.2012


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