Heating of Large Endovascular Stents and Stent Grafts in Magnetic Particle Imaging—Influence of Measurement Parameters and Isocenter Distance

Franz Wegner*, Anselm von Gladiss, Huimin Wei, André Behrends, Ulrike Grzyska, Malte M. Sieren, Julian Haegele, Matthias Graeser, Thorsten M. Buzug, Joerg Barkhausen, Thomas Friedrich

*Corresponding author for this work


Purpose: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a tomographic imaging modality with the potential for cardiovascular applications. In this context, the extent to which stents are heated should be estimated from safety perspective. Furthermore, the influence of the measurement parameters and stent distance to the isocenter of the MPI scanner on stent heating were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Nine different endovascular stents and stent grafts were tested in polyvinyl-chloride tubes. The stents had diameters from 10 to 31 mm, lengths between 25 and 100 mm and were made from stainless steel, nitinol or cobalt-chromium. The temperature differences were recorded with fiber-optic thermometers. All measurements were performed in a preclinical commercial MPI scanner. The measurement parameters were varied (drive field strengths: 3, 6, 9, 12 mT and selection field gradients: 0, 1.25 and 2.5 T/m). Furthermore, measurements with different distances to the scanner’s isocenter were performed (100 to 0 mm). Results: All stents showed heating (maximum 53.1 K, minimum 4.6 K). The stent diameter directly correlated with the temperature increase. The drive field strength influenced the heating of the stents, whereas the selection field gradient had no detectable impact. The heating of the stents decreased with increasing distance from the scanner’s isocenter and thus correlated with the loss of the scanner’s magnetic field. Conclusion: Stents can cause potentially harmful heating in MPI. In addition to the stent diameter and design, the drive field strength and the distance to the MPI scanner’s isocenter must be kept in mind as influencing parameters.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Research Areas and Centers

  • Academic Focus: Biomedical Engineering

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 205-30 Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Radiation Therapy and Radiobiology
  • 205-32 Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering


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