Gynecomastia-Conservative and Surgical Management

Kristin Baumann*

*Corresponding author for this work
6 Citations (Scopus)


Gynecomastia is defined as a unilateral or bilateral persistent benign mammary gland enlargement in men. Prevalence of asymptomatic gynecomastia is up to 65%. True gynecomastia must be distinguished from pseudogynecomastia. Typically, in true gynecomastia, a solid tissue mass is palpable below the nipple-Areolar complex. Malignant changes such as male mammary carcinoma must always be ruled out. The causes of gynecomastia are diverse. An imbalance of female to male hormones triggers the onset of the disease. This imbalance can be caused by endogenous diseases like hyperthyroidism, chronic liver disease, primary or secondary gonadal failure, androgen resistance syndromes, medication, and drug abuse. A series of heart or hypertension medications can also trigger gynecomastia. A basic requirement of proper therapy planning is knowledge of the triggers and possible drug therapy options. Inquiring about the patient's lifestyle and medication history is essential. Drug therapy with tamoxifen may be considered at an early stage. For gynecomastia persisting over 12 months, surgical excision is the treatment of choice, and there are several surgical options available depending on the grade of the gynecomastia. A thoughtful approach to managing this condition can lead to high patient satisfaction.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBreast Care
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)419-424
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 01.12.2018


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