Growth differentiation factor-15 in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: Diagnostic and prognostic value

T. Stiermaier, V. Adams, M. Just, S. Blazek, S. Desch, G. Schuler, H. Thiele, I. Eitel*

*Corresponding author for this work
14 Citations (Scopus)


Background Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), a stress responsive cytokine, has emerged as a marker of adverse outcome in various cardiovascular diseases. Since GDF-15 has not been evaluated in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), the present study sought to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value in this patient cohort. Methods A total of 22 patients presenting with TTC were matched for age and gender with 22 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. GDF-15 concentrations were measured at admission and 1 day thereafter. The primary clinical endpoint of the TTC cohort was the composite of death, cardiogenic shock, or new congestive heart failure within 6 months. Results TTC patients showed significantly higher GDF-15 values on admission compared to patients presenting with STEMI (median 3047 ng/l [interquartile range 2256-7572] versus median 1527 ng/l [interquartile range 1152-2677]; p = 0.002). TTC patients with a biventricular ballooning pattern and patients experiencing major adverse cardiac events during the first 6 months after acute presentation showed significantly higher GDF-15 concentrations on admission (p = 0.008 and p = 0.005, respectively). Biventricular ballooning was identified as a predictor for elevated GDF-15 values on admission (p = 0.03). High GDF-15 levels on admission were the only significant predictor for the combined clinical endpoint in multivariable regression analysis (p = 0.02). Conclusion TTC patients showed markedly high, but transient elevation of GDF-15 levels. Biventricular ballooning was associated with particularly high GDF-15 concentrations. Elevated GDF-15 values on admission were a strong predictor of adverse clinical outcome.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)424-429
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 15.05.2014

Research Areas and Centers

  • Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)


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