Allergies are one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, contributing to a tremendous medical and economical burden in health care systems of most industrialized countries. The development of allergies is dependent on a complex interaction of—among others—environmental factors, nutrition, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms as well as the microbiome. These diverse factors can influence early life immune regulation including innate and adaptive immune mechanisms in a complex fashion. In case of any Childhood allergies have increased significantly in past decades. In addition to environmental factors and nutrition, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms as well as the microbiome of children play an important role. Of relevance is the way in which these diverse factors influence early immune development of the innate and adaptive immune systems of children. Their complex regulation is decisive for whether or not a child develops an allergy that manifests in most cases as atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, or allergic rhino conjunctivitis, or whether a child develops an immune tolerance. These influences can begin prenatally, already setting the course for later immune system development and occurrence of disease.