Genetik del dystonien

Translated title of the contribution: The genetics of dystonia

Ch Klein*, M. Kann, B. Kis, P. P. Pramstaller, X. O. Breakefield, L. J. Ozelius, P. Vieregge

*Corresponding author for this work
4 Citations (Scopus)


To date, at least 12 types of primary dystonia can be distinguished on a genetic basis. A 3-bp deletion in the DYT1 gene causes early onset, generalized torsion dystonia (TD), and mutations in the GTP cyclohydrolase I and the tyrosine hydroxylase genes result in dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5). A missense change in the D2 dopamine receptor in one large family (DYT11) has recently been implicated in myoclonus-dystonia. Furthermore, seven other loci for dystonia genes have been mapped to chromosomal regions, including a locus for a mixed dystonia phenotype (DYT6), one form of focal dystonia (DYT7), three types of paroxysmal dystonia (DYT8-10), X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (DYT3), and rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (DYT12). No positive linkage results have yet been obtained for autosomal recessive TD (DYT2) and several other families of different types of dominantly inherited TD (DYT4). In addition, hereditary secondary dystonia may occur as part of familial diseases of the basal ganglia, metabolic and storage disorders, and various X-linked and other familial neurodegenerative syndromes affecting the basal ganglia. It may be anticipated that the traditional clinical and etiological classifications of dystonia will increasingly be replaced by a genetic one and that the identification of more dystonia genes may lead to a better understanding of these largely nondegenerative disorders.

Translated title of the contributionThe genetics of dystonia
Original languageGerman
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)431-441
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 06.2000


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