Fifteen years of genetic research in Parkinson's disease (PD) have led to the identification of several monogenic forms of the disorder and of numerous genetic risk factors increasing the risk to develop PD. Monogenic forms, caused by a single mutation in a dominantly or recessively inherited gene, are well-established, albeit relatively rare types of PD. They collectively account for about 30% of the familial and 3%-5% of the sporadic cases. In this article, we will summarize the current knowledge and understanding of the molecular genetics of PD. In brief, we will review familial forms of PD, basic genetic principles of inheritance (and their exceptions in PD), followed by current methods for the identification of PD genes and risk factors, and implications for genetic testing.