Invasive mold disease (IMD) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a severe infectious complication in immunocompromised patients, but early microbiological diagnosis is difficult. As data on the value of biomarkers in the CNS are scarce, in particular in children, we retrospectively analyzed the performance of galactomannan (GM) and PCR assays in CNS samples of 15 children with proven and probable CNS IMD and of 32 immunocompromised children without fungal infection. Galactomannan in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was assessed in nine of the 15 pediatric patients and was positive in five of them. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in eight of the 15 patients and detected nucleic acids from molds in six patients. Galactomannan and PCR in CNS samples were the only positive microbiologic parameter in the CNS in three and two patients, respectively. In four patients, PCR specified the pathogen detected in microscopy. Galactomannan and PCR results remained negative in the CSF of all immunocompromised children without evidence for CNS IMD. Our data suggest that GM and PCR in CNS specimens are valuable additional tools in diagnosing CNS IMD and should be included in the work up of all pediatric patients with suspected mold disease of the CNS.