Functional neuronavigation is based on the visualization of functional images within a surgical tracking system. This and other developing techniques help the neurosur-geon to tailor surgical procedures in order to increase diagnostic yield and to preserve brain function while maximizing the necessary extent of resection. The final goal is to improve postoperative survival and quality of life. A major advantage of functional imaging, in comparison with other functional brain mapping techniques, such as direct cortical stimulation (electrical cortical stimulation, ECS) is its noninvasiveness. Furthermore, availability of functional information to the surgeon and patient prior to surgery provides insight not only into a better evaluation of the procedure indication but also into the planning of a function-preserving operation including the most appropriate surgical access to the respective brain areas. In order to implement functional neuronavi-gation into the daily clinical routine, optimized imaging protocols are indispensable.