Forecasting respiratory motion with accurate online support vector regression (SVRpred)

Floris Ernst*, Achim Schweikard

*Corresponding author for this work
44 Citations (Scopus)


Object: To accurately deliver radiation in image-guided robotic radiosurgery, highly precise prediction algorithms are required. A new prediction method is presented and evaluated. Materials and methods: SVRpred, a new prediction method based on support vector regression (SVR), has been developed and tested. Computer-generated data mimicking human respiratory motion with a prediction horizon of 150 ms was used for lab tests. The algorithm was subsequently evaluated on a respiratory motion signal recorded during actual radiosurgical treatment using the CyberKnife®. The algorithm's performance was compared to the MULIN prediction methods and Wavelet-based multi scale autoregression (wLMS). Results: The SVRpred algorithm clearly outperformed both the MULIN and the wLMS algorithms on both real (by 15 and 16 percentage points, respectively) and noise-corrupted simulated data (by 13 and 48 percentage points, respectively). Only on noise-free artificial data, the SVRpred algorithm did perform as well as the MULIN algorithms but not as well as the wLMS algorithm. Conclusion: This new algorithm is a feasible tool for the prediction of human respiratory motion signals significantly outperforming previous algorithms. The only drawback is the high computational complexity and the resulting slow prediction speed. High performance computers will be needed to use the algorithm in live prediction of signals sampled at a high resolution.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)439-447
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 01.01.2009


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