Background: In women with late-age conception there seems to be an increase in longevity as the result of genetic or environmental factors or an interaction between both factors. In recent years there has been an upward shift in the average age of women at the birth of the first child; therefore, the resulting health consequences are of crucial importance. Objectives: In what context and to what extent is there an increase in longevity in women with late-age conception? Material and methods: Selective narrative review of the literature with discussion and assessment of current data including reviews, demographic and historical studies concerning the link between fertility, infertility and longevity. Results: While the relationship between age at the birth of the last child and longevity is relatively consistent in natural fertility populations, the same relationship cannot be seen in the age at the first birth or the number of children. In animal experiments, transfusion of blood from young to old mice can reverse some aging effects and can increase the reproductive potential. Although key genes have not yet been identified, important overlaps in the signaling pathways affecting extended fertility and longevity could be detected in genetic analyses. Conclusion: Many studies and theories have attempted to explain the association between fertility and longevity in a reasonable manner; however, no consensus on possible causal mechanisms has been reached so that further studies and genetic analyses are needed. Furthermore, it must be naturally taken into consideration that a late-age pregnancy always directly represents a high health risk for the mother and child.