Experimental in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models in prostate cancer research

Verena Sailer, Gunhild von Amsberg, Stefan Duensing, Jutta Kirfel, Verena Lieb, Eric Metzger, Anne Offermann, Klaus Pantel, Roland Schuele, Helge Taubert, Sven Wach, Sven Perner, Stefan Werner, Achim Aigner*

*Corresponding author for this work
4 Citations (Scopus)


Androgen deprivation therapy has a central role in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, often causing initial tumour remission before increasing independence from signal transduction mechanisms of the androgen receptor and then eventual disease progression. Novel treatment approaches are urgently needed, but only a fraction of promising drug candidates from the laboratory will eventually reach clinical approval, highlighting the demand for critical assessment of current preclinical models. Such models include standard, genetically modified and patient-derived cell lines, spheroid and organoid culture models, scaffold and hydrogel cultures, tissue slices, tumour xenograft models, patient-derived xenograft and circulating tumour cell eXplant models as well as transgenic and knockout mouse models. These models need to account for inter-patient and intra-patient heterogeneity, the acquisition of primary or secondary resistance, the interaction of tumour cells with their microenvironment, which make crucial contributions to tumour progression and resistance, as well as the effects of the 3D tissue network on drug penetration, bioavailability and efficacy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Reviews Urology
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)158-178
Number of pages21
Publication statusPublished - 03.2023

Research Areas and Centers

  • Research Area: Luebeck Integrated Oncology Network (LION)
  • Centers: University Cancer Center Schleswig-Holstein (UCCSH)


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