Exchange and double-exchange phenomena in linear homo- and heteronuclear nickel(II,III,IV) complexes containing six μ2-phenolato or μ2-thiophenolato bridging ligands

Thomas Beissel*, Frank Birkelbach, Eckhard Bill, Thorsten Glaser, Frank Kesting, Carsten Krebs, Thomas Weyhermüller, Karl Wieghardt, Christian Butzlaff, Alfred X. Trautwein

*Corresponding author for this work
89 Citations (Scopus)


A series of homo- and heterotrinuclear complexes containing three face-sharing octahedra has been synthesized by using the pendent arm macrocyclic ligands 1,4,7-tris(3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, L0H3, and 1,4,7-tris(4-tert-butyl-2-mercaptobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, LH3: [{L0Ni(II)}2Ni(II)] (1) and [{LCo(III)}2Co(III)](PF6)3 (2); [{LCo(III)}2Ni](n+) (n = 2 (3), 3 (4), 4 (5)); [{LNi}2Co(III)](n+) (n = 1 (6), 2 (7), 3 (8)) and its linkage isomers [{LNi}Ni{Co(III)L}](n+) (n = 1 (9), 2 (10), 3 (11)) and, finally, the complexes [{LNi}2Ni](n+) (n = 0 (12), 1 (13), 2 (14), 3 (15)). In complex 1 three octahedral Ni(II) ions form a linear array with two terminal [L0Ni(II)>]- moieties in a facial N3O3 donor set and a central Ni(II) ion which is connected to the terminal ions via six phenolate bridging pendent arms of L0. In complexes 2-15 the three metal ions are always in the same ligand matrix yielding an N3M(μ-S)3M(μ-S)3MN3 first-coordination sphere regardless of the nature of the metal ions (nickel or cobalt) or their formal oxidation states. From temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements it has been determined that 1 has an S = 3 ground state whereas in 12 it is S = 1. In order to understand this difference in exchange coupling (ferromagnetic in 1 and antiferromagnetic in 12) in two apparently very similar complexes the magnetic properties of 2-15 have been investigated. Complex 3 has an S = 1 and 4 an S = 1/4 , and 5 is diamagnetic (S = 0) as is its isoelectronic counterpart 2. This indicates the availability of the oxidation states II, III, and IV of the central NiS6 unit. In the isostructural complexes 6, 7, and 8, two terminal nickel ions are bridged by a central diamagnetic Co(III). The exchange coupling between two terminal paramagnetic nickel ions was studied as a function of their formal oxidation state. In 6 the two Ni(II) ions are ferromagnetically coupled (S = 2); the mixed-valent Ni(II)Ni(III) species 7 has an S = 3/2 ground state and in 8 most probably two Ni(III) ions (d7 low spin) give rise to an S = 1 ground state. In contrast, in the series 9, 10, and 11 where two nickel ions are in a position adjacent to each other 9 has an S = 0 (antiferromagnetic coupling), but in the mixed-valent complex 10 an S = 3/2 ground state (ferromagnetic coupling) is observed. In 11 an S = 1 ground state prevails which may be achieved by ferromagnetic coupling between two Ni(III) ions. For the trinuclear nickel complexes 12-15 an S = 1 ground state has been determined for 12, an S = 3/2 for the mixed valent complex 13, and an S = 2 for 14, and 15 exhibits an S = 3/2 ground state. The Goodenough-Kanamori rules do not provide a consistent explanation for the observed ground states in all cases. The concept of double exchange, originally introduced by Zener in 1951, appears to provide a more appropriate description for the mixed-valent species 7, 10, 13, 14, and 15. This picture is corroborated by the electrochemistry and EPR spectroscopy of complexes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number49
Pages (from-to)12376-12390
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 01.12.1996


Dive into the research topics of 'Exchange and double-exchange phenomena in linear homo- and heteronuclear nickel(II,III,IV) complexes containing six μ2-phenolato or μ2-thiophenolato bridging ligands'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this