Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor in breast cancer is associated with estrogen receptor negativity, higher histological grade and larger tumors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum EGFR (sEGFR) in relation to circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in metastatic breast cancer. 252 patients were enrolled in this prospective multicentre study. Blood was drawn before start of a new line of therapy. sEGFR was determined using a sandwich-type ELISA. CTCs were detected using CellSearch. sEGFR was determined in 48 healthy controls and 252 patients, with no significant differences between the two groups. Clinical-pathological parameters did not correlate with sEGFR, irrespective of the cutoff chosen. Patients with sEGFR levels above the 50th and 75th percentile were more likely to present with <5 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood (p = 0.007; p = 0.003). Patients with sEGFR ≥73 ng/ml had significantly longer overall survival than those with sEGFR <73 ng/ml (19.7 vs. 15.2 months; p = 0.007). In the multivariate analysis, presence of ≥5 CTCs, higher grading and higher line of therapy remained independent predictors of shorter OS, while only higher line of therapy and presence of ≥5 CTCs were independent predictors of shorter PFS.