Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation acts anti-inflammatory through epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and inhibition of nuclear factor κb

Franziska Rompe, Metin Artuc, Anders Hallberg, Mathias Alterman, Katja Ströder, Christa Thöne-Reineke, Anne Reichenbach, Jens Schacherl, Björn Dahlöf, Michael Bader, Natalia Alenina, Markus Schwaninger, Torsten Zuberbier, Heiko Funke-Kaiser, Cosima Schmidt, Wolf Hagen Schunck, Thomas Unger, U. Muscha Steckelings

129 Citations (Scopus)


Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors can be regarded as an endogenous repair system, because the AT2 receptor is upregulated in tissue damage and mediates tissue protection. A potential therapeutic use of this system has only recently come within reach through synthesis of the first selective, orally active, nonpeptide AT2 receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21; dissociation constant for AT2 receptor: 0.4 nM; dissociation constant for angiotensin II type 1 receptor: >10 000 nM). This study tested AT 2 receptor stimulation with C21 as a potential future therapeutic approach for the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and of nuclear factor κB. C21 dose-dependently (1 nM to 1 μmol/L) reduced tumor necrosis factor-α-induced interleukin 6 levels in primary human and murine dermal fibroblasts. AT2 receptor specificity was controlled for by inhibition with the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 and by the absence of effects in AT2 receptor-deficient cells. AT2 receptor-coupled signaling leading to reduced interleukin 6 levels involved inhibition of nuclear factor κB, activation of protein phosphatases, and synthesis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid. Inhibition of interleukin 6 promoter activity by C21 was comparable in strength to inhibition by hydrocortisone. C21 also reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in vitro and in bleomycin-induced toxic cutaneous inflammation in vivo. This study is the first to show the anti-inflammatory effects of direct AT2 receptor stimulation in vitro and in vivo by the orally active, nonpeptide AT2 receptor agonist C21. These data suggest that pharmacological AT2 receptor stimulation may be an orally applicable future therapeutic approach in pathological settings requiring the reduction of interleukin 6 or inhibition of nuclear factor κB.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)924-931
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 01.04.2010

Research Areas and Centers

  • Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)


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