Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) is a rare disorder in which patellar aplasia or hypoplasia is associated with external genital anomalies and severe intellectual disability. Using an exome-sequencing approach, we identified de novo mutations of KAT6B in five individuals with GPS; a single nonsense variant and three frameshift indels, including a 4 bp deletion observed in two cases. All identified mutations are located within the terminal exon of the gene and are predicted to generate a truncated protein product lacking evolutionarily conserved domains. KAT6B encodes a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltranferases. We demonstrate a reduced level of both histone H3 and H4 acetylation in patient-derived cells suggesting that dysregulation of histone acetylation is a direct functional consequence of GPS alleles. These findings define the genetic basis of GPS and illustrate the complex role of the regulation of histone acetylation during development.