Background: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially life-threatening medication-induced syndrome. Core symptoms are hyperthermia, diaphoresis, rigidity, impaired consciousness, and creatinine kinase elevation. Additionally, patients show vegetative dysregulation including blood pressure fluctuations. The purpose of this paper is to summarize current findings, to facilitate diagnostics and to distinguish NMS from other syndromes. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature. We included scientific publications, books and guidelines. Results: In this review we summarize the current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapeutic options. Conclusion: Clinical symptoms of NMS are heterogeneous and it is difficult to diagnose early states. Early interventions are important to ensure fast and complete recovery. Since NMS is a rare condition, publications on NMS-therapy are based on single-case reports, meta-analysis or expert opinions. Core symptoms should be considered: Exposure to dopamine-antagonists, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, rigidity, mental status alteration, creatinine kinase elevation, and vegetative dysregulation.
Research Areas and Centers
- Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)