Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) comprise a rapidly growing group of inherited disorders in which glycosylation of glycoproteins is defective due to mutations in genes required for the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides, their transfer to nascent glycoproteins (CDG-I) or the processing of protein-bound glycans (CDG-II). Previously' a defect in the GDP-fucose import into the lumen of the Golgi was identified in a person with CDG (A.C.) with a general deficiency of fucosyl residues in glycoproteins. This patient presents the clinical features of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II (LAD II) including mental retardation, short stature, facial stigmata, and recurrent bacterial peripheral infections with persistently elevated peripheral leukocytes. Using a fucose-specific, lectin-staining procedure for detection of fucosylated glycoproteins and a retroviral cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA complementing the fucosylation defect in the patient's fibroblasts. The cDNA encodes a highly hydrophobic protein of 364 amino acids with multiple putative transmembrane domains. Restoration of GDP-fucose import activity in Golgi-enriched vesicles from the patient's fibroblasts verified the GDP-fucose transporter activity of this protein. We identified two missense mutations in the GDP-fucose transporter cDNA of patient A.C. and of two other people with LAD II. Thus complementation cloning allowed us to identify the human GDP-fucose transporter cDNA and GDP-fucose transporter deficiency as a cause for a new type of CDG. Following the recent recommendations for the nomenclature for CDG, this new type is classified as CDG-IIc (formerly LAD II).