Allergic conditions are associated with canonical and noncanonical activation of the complement system leading to the release of several bioactive mediators with inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties that regulate the immune response in response to allergens during the sensitization and/or the effector phase of allergic diseases. Further, immune sensors of complement and regulator proteins of the cascade impact on the development of allergies. These bioactive mediators comprise the small and large cleavage fragments of C3 and C5. Here, we provide an update on the multiple roles of immune sensors, regulators, and bioactive mediators of complement in allergic airway diseases, food allergies, and anaphylaxis. A particular emphasis is on the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a and their receptors, which are expressed on many of the effector cells in allergy such as mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, macrophages, and neutrophils. Also, we will discuss the multiple pathways, by which the anaphylatoxins initiate and control the development of maladaptive type 2 immunity including their impact on innate lymphoid cell recruitment and activation. Finally, we briefly comment on the potential to therapeutically target the complement system in different allergic conditions.
Research Areas and Centers
- Academic Focus: Center for Infection and Inflammation Research (ZIEL)
DFG Research Classification Scheme
- 204-05 Immunology
- 205-22 Clinical Immunology and Allergology