Comparison of spot sign, blend sign and black hole sign for outcome prediction in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

Peter B. Sporns, Michael Schwake, André Kemmling, Jens Minnerup, Wolfram Schwindt, Thomas Niederstadt, Rene Schmidt, Uta Hanning

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background and Purpose Blend sign (BS) and black hole sign (BHS) on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) and spot sign (SS) on CT-angiography (CTA) are indicators of early hematoma expansion in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, their independent contributions to outcome have not been well explored. Methods In this retrospective study, inclusion criteria were: 1) spontaneous ICH and 2) NCCT and CTA performed on admission within 6 hours after onset of symptoms. Discharge outcome was dichotomized as good (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0-3) and poor (mRS 4-6) outcomes. The impacts of BHS, BS and SS on outcome were assessed in univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of 182 patients with spontaneous ICH, 26 (14.3%) presented with BHS, 37 (20.3%) with BS and 39 (21.4%) with SS. There was a substantial correlation between SS and BS (κ=0.701) and a moderate correlation between SS and BHS (κ=0.424). In univariable logistic regression, higher baseline hematoma volume (P<0.001), intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.002) and the presence of BHS/BS/SS (all P<0.001) on admission CT scan were associated with poor outcome. Multivariable analysis identified intraventricular haemorrhage (odds ratio [OR] 2.22 per mL, P=0.022), baseline hematoma volume (OR 1.03 per mL, P<0.001) and SS on CTA (OR 11.43, P<0.001) as independent predictors of poor outcome, showing that SS compared to BS and BHS was more powerful to predict poor outcome. Conclusions The NCCT BHS and BS are correlated with the CTA SS and are reliable predictors of poor outcome in patients with ICH. Of the CT variables indicating early hematoma expansion, SS on CTA was the most reliable outcome predictor. However, given their correlation with SS on CTA, BS and BHS on NCCT can be useful for predicting outcome if CTA is not obtainable.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Stroke
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)333-339
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 01.09.2017

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 206-07 Clinical Neurology Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology


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