Comparison of 2.4 ghz wifi ftm-and rssi-based indoor positioning methods in realistic scenarios

Markus Bullmann*, Toni Fetzer, Frank Ebner, Markus Ebner, Frank Deinzer, Marcin Grzegorzek

*Corresponding author for this work
2 Citations (Scopus)


With the addition of the Fine Timing Measurement (FTM) protocol in IEEE 802.11-2016, a promising sensor for smartphone-based indoor positioning systems was introduced. FTM enables a Wi-Fi device to estimate the distance to a second device based on the propagation time of the signal. Recently, FTM has gotten more attention from the scientific community as more compatible devices become available. Due to the claimed robustness and accuracy, FTM is a promising addition to the often used Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI). In this work, we evaluate FTM on the 2.4 GHz band with 20 MHz channel bandwidth in the context of realistic indoor positioning scenarios. For this purpose, we deploy a least-squares estimation method, a probabilistic positioning approach and a simplistic particle filter implementation. Each method is evaluated using FTM and RSSI separately to show the difference of the techniques. Our results show that, although FTM achieves smaller positioning errors compared to RSSI, its error behavior is similar to RSSI. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an empirically optimized correction value for FTM is required to account for the environment. This correction value can reduce the positioning error significantly.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4515
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number16
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
Publication statusPublished - 02.08.2020


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