Atopic dermatitis (AD, also called atopic eczema) is a long-term skin disease that causes intensely itchy, red skin. Healthcare providers can prescribe medicated creams and ointments to reduce the signs and symptoms of AD. However, these treatments are not always enough to provide relief. A new medicine called abrocitinib, which is taken every day as a tablet, reduces part of the body's immune response that happens in AD. The clinical study described in this plain language summary, called JADE COMPARE, investigated how well and how safely 16 weeks of treatment with abrocitinib worked in adults with AD compared to placebo ('dummy treatment') and a medicine that is already approved for AD, called dupilumab. The study showed that abrocitinib was better than placebo in improving the signs and symptoms of AD after 16 weeks. In addition, patients who were taking abrocitinib 200 mg for 2 weeks experienced greater relief from itch than patients who were taking abrocitinib 100 mg, placebo, or dupilumab. More people who took abrocitinib 200 mg reported side effects than those taking abrocitinib 100 mg, placebo, or dupilumab, but most of these side effects were mild or moderate. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT number: NCT03720470.