Clinical Findings and Follow-Up of 46,XY and 45,X/46,XY Testicular Dysgenesis

Juliana G.R. Andrade, Helena Fabbri-Scallet, Ana P. Dos Santos, Martine Cools, Ralf Werner, Olaf Hiort, Maricilda P. De Mello, Gil Guerra-Júnior, Andrea T. Maciel-Guerra*

*Corresponding author for this work
3 Citations (Scopus)


Historically, the terms partial (PGD) and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) have been used to describe incomplete testicular differentiation in individuals with 46,XY or 45,X/46,XY karyotypes, respectively. However, it is currently unclear to what extent clinical features actually differ between these individuals. The aim of this study was to compare clinical, laboratory, and histological findings in these 2 groups. Patients with testicular dysgenesis seen in our service between 1989 and 2013 were selected. Sixty-one patients met the inclusion criteria. Individuals with 46,XY and 45,X/46,XY karyotypes were compared regarding genital features, gonadal histology and function, growth, and associated conditions. Twenty-five had mosaicism with a 45,X cell line (MGD), while a 46,XY karyotype (PGD) was found in 36 cases belonging to 32 families. Mutations in NR5A1, WT1, and SRY genes associated with testicular dysgenesis were found in 12 families. There were no significant differences regarding parental consanguinity, degree of external androgenization, gonadal location, histology, and function, and associated conditions. However, in the MGD group, the presence of a uterus, lower birth weight and length, and short stature were more often observed. Therefore, the use of histological features to classify PDG and MGD should be abandoned and replaced by classification based on karyotype.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSexual Development
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)171-177
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 01.05.2020

Research Areas and Centers

  • Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 205-17 Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism
  • 205-20 Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine


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