Clinical consequences of PKHD1 mutations in 164 patients with autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)

Carsten Bergmann*, Jan Senderek, Ellen Windelen, Fabian Küpper, Iris Middeldorf, Frank Schneider, Christian Dornia, Sabine Rudnik-Schöneborn, Martin Konrad, Claus P. Schmitt, Tomas Seeman, Thomas J. Neuhaus, Udo Vester, Jutta Kirfel, Reinhard Büttner, Klaus Zerres, E. Abel, S. Ala-Mello, B. Ausserer, M. BaldR. Beetz, N. Besbas, M. Brandis, M. Coulthard, J. Dippel, C. Druck Garcia, M. Fischbach, N. Foged, Y. Frishberg, J. Gellermann, N. Gordjani, K. Häffner, R. C. Hennekam, B. Hoppe, P. Hoyer, U. John, H. Kääriäinen, M. J. Kemper, P. Koivisto, G. Krüger, E. Kuwertz-Bröcking, D. Lambert, T. Lennert, S. Li Volti, C. Mache, G. Matthijs, O. Mehls, V. Meiner, J. Misselwitz, T. Mononen, D. E. Müller-Wiefel, A. Mustonen, S. Özen, J. P. Oliveira, Y. Pirson, U. Querfeld, W. Rascher, C. Rudin, H. G. Santos, M. Schröder, H. W. Seyberth, S. Shalev, M. Shohat, J. Strehlau, O. Vierimaa, S. Völpel, M. Wilson, B. Zimmerhackl

*Corresponding author for this work
161 Citations (Scopus)


Background. ARPKD is associated with mutations in the PKHD1 gene on chromosome 6p12. Most cases manifest peri-/neonatally with a high mortality rate in the first month of life while the clinical spectrum of surviving patients is much more variable than generally perceived. Methods. We examined the clinical course of 164 neonatal survivors (126 unrelated families) over a mean observation period of 6 years (range 0 to 35 years). PKHD1 mutation screening was done by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) for the 66 exons encoding the 4074 aa fibrocystin/polyductin protein. Results and Conclusion. This is the first study that reports the long-term outcome of ARPKD patients with defined PKHD1 mutations. The 1- and 10-year survival rates were 85% and 82%, respectively. Chronic renal failure was first detected at a mean age of 4 years. Actuarial renal survival rates [end point defined as start of dialysis/renal transplantation (RTX) or by death due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD)] were 86% at 5 years, 71% at 10 years, and 42% at 20 years. All but six patients (92%) had a kidney length above or on the 97th centile for age. About 75% of the study population developed systemic hypertension. Sequelae of congenital hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension developed in 44% of patients and were related with age. Positive correlations could further be demonstrated between renal and hepatobiliary-related morbidity suggesting uniform disease progression rather than organ-specific patterns. PKHD1 mutation analysis revealed 193 mutations (70 novel ones; 77% nonconservative missense mutations). No patient carried two truncating mutations corroborating that one missense mutation is indispensable for survival of newborns. We attempted to set up genotype-phenotype correlations and to categorize missense mutations. In 96% of families we identified at least one mutated PKHD1 allele (overall detection rate 76.6%) indicating that PKHD1 mutation screening is a powerful diagnostic tool in patients suspected with ARPKD.

Original languageEnglish
JournalKidney International
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)829-848
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 01.01.2005


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