Clinical, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of Indian Children with Clinically Suspected Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

Anil Kumar, Rajni Sharma*, Mohammed Faruq, Manoj Kumar, Shilpa Sharma, Ralf Werner, Olaf Hiort, Jain Vandana

*Corresponding author for this work


This study describes the clinical, biochemical, and molecular characteristics of Indian children with 46,XY DSD and suspected androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Fifty children (median age 3.0 years, range 0-16.5 years) with 46,XY DSD and a suspected diagnosis of AIS were enrolled. Sanger sequencing was performed to identify pathogenic variants in the androgen receptor (AR) gene and to study genotype-phenotype correlations. All 5 (100%) patients with CAIS and 14/45 (31%) patients with PAIS had pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in the AR gene (overall, 14 different variants in 19 patients; 38.8%). There was no significant difference in clinical (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, or external masculinizing score) or biochemical parameters (gonadotropins and testosterone) between patients with or without pathogenic variants. However, patients with AIS were more likely to have a positive family history, be assigned female gender at birth, and present with gynaecomastia at puberty. Three novel pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants, including one splice donor site variant c.2318+1G>A, one frameshift variant p.H790Lfs∗40, and one missense variant p.G821E, were identified in 3 patients with CAIS. The missense variant p.G821E was predicted as deleterious, damaging, disease-causing, and likely functionally inactive by in silico analysis and protein modelling study. Two previously not reported pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants, including p.R386H and p.G396R, were identified in patients with PAIS. This study contributes in expanding the spectrum of pathogenic variants in the AR gene in patients with AIS. Only 31% patients with a provisional diagnosis of PAIS had pathogenic variants in the AR gene, suggesting other possible mechanisms or candidate genes may be responsible for such a phenotypic presentation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSexual Development
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)34-45
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 01.01.2022

Research Areas and Centers

  • Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 205-17 Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism


Dive into the research topics of 'Clinical, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of Indian Children with Clinically Suspected Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this