Background: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis therapy. Aim of the study was to evaluate whether there is a correlation between a past infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae inducing antibody production and the manifestation of symptomatic atherosclerotic disease in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. Methods: A retrospective study was designed including 151 dialysis patients with a clinical apparent atherosclerotic disease (case subjects) and 116 dialysis patients without any symptomatic atherosclerotic manifestation (control group). An ELISA was used to measure seropositivity for IgA and IgG titers. Results: Elevated IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae were found in 67% of the case subjects, but only in 29% of the controls (OR 5.34, CI 2.98 - 9.56). Forty-five patients of the case subjects had a history of myocardial infarction (OR 5.14, CI 2.38 - 11.09). Prior stroke was found in 30 patients in case subjects (OR 4.37, CI 1.73 - 11.01). The follow-up after 3 years showed that only 20 patients died from cardiovascular disease in the control group in comparison to 57 patients in the case group (OR 2.51). IgG seropositivity revealed an OR of 1.02 (CI 1.0 - 2. 1). Conclusion: These results indicate that IgA seropositivity is associated with an increased frequency of symptomatic atherosclerotic manifestations. Especially an increased number of patients was found with prior myocardial infarction or stroke when elevated IgA titers were detected. IgA positivity seems to be a separate prospective risk factor in patients with chronic renal failure and hemodialysis for premature cardiovascular death.