Objective: To determine the oncologic and toxicity outcomes of adjuvant immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) compared to adjuvant chemotherapy in patients treated with radical surgery for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Methods: We used the Bayesian approach in the network meta-analysis of different therapy regimens compared to observation or placebo. Results: Nine studies comprised of 2,444 patients met the eligibility criteria. In bladder UC, chemotherapy, atezolizumab, and nivolumab did not improve disease progression compared to observation/placebo. In upper tract UC (UTUC), chemotherapy was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of disease progression compared to observation/placebo, while atezolizumab and nivolumab were not. Based on the analysis of the treatment ranking, adjuvant chemotherapy appeared as the best treatment approach in both bladder UC and UTUC. The risk of adverse events with ICIs was comparable to that of observation/placebo. Conclusion: Our analysis suggests a superior oncologic benefit to adjuvant chemotherapy over ICIs in patients treated with radical surgery for both bladder UC and UTUC.
Research Areas and Centers
- Research Area: Luebeck Integrated Oncology Network (LION)