Objective: To analyze angiographic characteristics of cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (sSAH) and their potential impact on secondary infarction and functional outcome. Methods: Demographic, clinical, and imaging data of sSAH patients with angiographic CVS admitted over a 6-year period were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 85 patients were included in the final analysis. A total of 311 arterial territories in 85 angiographies demonstrated angiographic CVS. The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was the most common site of angiographic CVS (42.1%), followed by the middle cerebral artery (MCA) (26.7%). In 29 angiographies (34%) CVS was found in more than 3 vessels and a bilateral pattern was identified in 53 cases (62%). Older age (OR 3.24 [95% CI 1.30–8.07], P = 0.012) was identified as the only significant risk factor for CVS-related infarction (OR 22.67, P = 0.015). Unfavorable outcome was associated with older age (OR 3.24, P = 0.023) and poor World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade (OR 3.64, P = 0.015). Analyses of angiographic characteristics did not reveal any risk factors for unfavorable outcome. We identified distal CVS as a significant risk factor for CVS-related infarction (OR 2.89, P = 0.026). Conclusions: Angiographic CVS after sSAH shows a specific distribution pattern in favor of ACA and MCA and in most cases 2–3 affected vessels are affected, often bilaterally. Patients exhibiting distal CVS have a higher risk for CVS-related infarction and should be observed closely. Nonetheless, the majority of angiographic characteristics did not allow conclusions about functional outcome nor the occurrence of CVS-related infarction in sSAH patients.
Research Areas and Centers
- Academic Focus: Biomedical Engineering