Benign central neurocytoma (CN) is a rare neuronal tumour of the central nervous system recognised since the early eighties. More than 300 articles have been published in the literature, mostly comprising of case reports and short series from individual specialties. These tumours, though normally benign, are more often likely to recur after surgery than previously thought. A multi-modality team involvement, therefore, has become increasingly necessary for their optimum management. In this article, the authors from various neurosciences sub-specialties, with a specific interest and experience in managing CN, review the epidemiology, clinical features, pathological findings, radiological characteristics and surgical treatment, with an emphasis on the latest developments in their histology, molecular biology and adjuvant treatment modalities for recurrent or residual disease.