Hypoxia-inducible factors are crucial in the regulatory process of oxygen homeostasis of vertebrate cells. Inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation of HIF-α subunits by prolyl-hydroxylases (PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3) leads to transcription of a greater number of hypoxia responsive genes. We have investigated the subcellular distribution and the molecular mechanisms regulating the intracellular allocation of PHD1 and PHD2. As reported earlier we find PHD1 located exclusively in the nucleus. We demonstrate that nuclear import of PHD1 occurs importin α/β dependently and relies on a nuclear localisation signal (NLS). By contrast PHD2 is cycling between nucleus and cytoplasm, and nuclear import seems to be independent of "classical" importin α/β receptors. Furthermore, we reveal that the exit of PHD2 from the nucleus requires CRM1 and the N-terminal 100 amino acids of the protein. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of the regulation of the oxygen sensor cascade of PHDs in different cellular compartments.
|Journal||Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications|
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - 02.10.2009|