INTRODUCTION The rapid growth in the e-cigarette market after the launch of JUUL e-cigarettes led to much discussion on the potential benefits and risks of pods, JUUL devices, and conventional e-cigarettes compared with combustible cigarettes. Independent data are required to assess the effects of these products on cardiovascular surrogate parameters and cardiovascular risk. METHODS We conducted a single-center three-arm study comparing combustible cigarettes with JUUL e-cigarettes with the old and new technology. We recruited 32 participants who were active smokers (n=15) or vapers (n=17) and performed a total of 39 measurements before and 5, 15, and 30 minutes, after participants smoked a combustible cigarette or vaped a JUUL e-cigarette with the new or old technology. Measurements included peripheral and central blood pressures and parameters of arterial stiffness, including pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. RESULTS Peripheral systolic blood pressure, central blood pressure, and peripheral pulse rate increased significantly in all three groups (each p<0.05). Heart rate (HR) changes lasted significantly longer than blood pressure changes. The augmentation index and pulse wave velocity increased in all three groups, and a multivariate analysis of variance showed that the increases were independent of systolic blood pressure, sex, age, device, and HR. CONCLUSIONS Changes in blood pressure and arterial stiffness are similar after cigarette smoking and JUUL use. These changes may be associated with an increased cardiovascular risk compared with no product use. However, a long-term follow-up evaluation of JUUL use and a head-to-head comparison with conventional e-cigarettes are still needed.