ATZ11 recognizes not only Z-α1-antitrypsin-polymers and complexed forms of non-Z-α1-antitrypsin but also the von Willebrand Factor

Diane Goltz, Kanishka Hittetiya, Hamideh Yadegari, Julia Driesen, Jutta Kirfel, Thomas Neuhaus, Susanne Steiner, Christiane Esch, Jörg Bedorf, Hans Jörg Hertfelder, Hans Peter Fischer

2 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: The ATZ11 antibody has been well established for the identification of α1-anti-trypsin (AAT) molecule type PiZ (Z-AAT) in blood samples and liver tissue. In this study, we systematically analyzed the antibody for additional binding sites in human tissue. Methods and Results: Ultrastructural ATZ11 binding was investigated immunoelectron microscopically in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in platelets of a healthy individual. Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were transiently transfected with Von Willebrand factor (VWF) and analyzed immunocytochemically using confocal microscopy and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by western blotting (WB). Platelets and serum samples of VWF-competent and VWF-deficient patients were investigated using native PAGE and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by WB. The specificity of the ATZ11 reaction was tested immunohistochemically by extensive antibody-mediated blocking of AAT- and VWF-antigens. ATZ11-positive epitopes could be detected in Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) of HUVECs and α-granules of platelets. ATZ11 stains pseudo-WBP containing recombinant wild-type VWF (rVWF-WT) in HEK293 cells. In SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by WB, anti-VWF and ATZ11 both identified rVWF-WT. However, neither rVWF-WT-multimers, human VWF-multimers, nor serum proteins of VWF-deficient patients were detected using ATZ11 by WB, whereas anti-VWF antibody (anti-VWF) detected rVWF-WT-multimers as well as human VWF-multimers. In human tissue specimens, AAT-antigen blockade using anti-AAT antibody abolished ATZ11 staining of Z-AAT in a heterozygous AAT-deficient patient, whereas VWF-antigen blockade using anti-VWF abolished ATZ11 staining of endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. Conclusions: ATZ11 reacts with cellular bound and denatured rVWF-WT and human VWF as shown using immunocytochemistry and subsequent confocal imaging, immunoelectron microscopy, SDS-PAGE and WB, and immunohistology. These immunoreactions are independent of the binding of Z-AAT-molecules and non-Z-AAT complexes.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere91538
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 19.03.2014


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