Despite the widespread use of genotype imputation tools and the availability of different approaches, late developments of currently used programs have not been compared comprehensively. We therefore assessed the performance of 35 combinations of phasing and imputation programs, including versions of SHAPEIT, Eagle, Beagle, minimac, PBWT, and IMPUTE, for genetic imputation of completely missing SNPs with a HRC reference panel regarding quality and speed. We used a data set comprising 1,149 fully sequenced individuals from the German population, subsetting the SNPs to approximate the Illumina Infinium-Omni5 array. Five hundred fifty-three thousand two hundred and thirty-four SNPs across two selected chromosomes were utilized for comparison between imputed and sequenced genotypes. We found that all tested programs with the exception of PBWT impute genotypes with very high accuracy (mean error rate < 0.005). PBTW hardly ever imputes the less frequent allele correctly (mean concordance for genotypes including the minor allele <0.0002). For all programs, imputation accuracy drops for rare alleles with a frequency <0.05. Even though overall concordance is high, concordance drops with genotype probability, indicating that low genotype probabilities are rare. The mean concordance of SNPs with a genotype probability <95% drops below 0.9, at which point disregarding imputed genotypes might prove favorable. For fast and accurate imputation, a combination of Eagle2.4.1 using a reference panel for phasing and Beagle5.1 for imputation performs best. Replacing Beagle5.1 with minimac3, minimac4, Beagle4.1, or IMPUTE4 results in a small gain in accuracy at a high cost of speed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalFrontiers in Genetics
Pages (from-to)724037
Publication statusPublished - 2021


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