Adaptive responses of androgen receptor signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer

Sven Perner, Marcus V. Cronauer, Andres Jan Schrader, Helmut Klocker, Zoran Culig, Aria Baniahmad*

*Corresponding author for this work
50 Citations (Scopus)


Prostate Cancer (PCa) is an important age-related disease being the most common cancer malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in men in Western countries. Initially, PCa progression is androgen receptor (AR)- and androgen-dependent. Eventually advanced PCa reaches the stage of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC), but remains dependent on AR, which indicates the importance of AR activity also for CRPC. Here, we discuss various pathways that influence the AR activity in CRPC, which indicates an adaptation of the AR signaling in PCa to overcome the treatment of PCa. The adaptation pathways include interferences of the normal regulation of the AR protein level, the expression of AR variants, the crosstalk of the AR with cytokine tyrosine kinases, the Src-Akt-, the MAPK-signaling pathways and AR corepressors. Furthermore, we summarize the current treatment options with regard to the underlying molecular basis of the common adaptation processes of AR signaling that may arise after the treatment with AR antagonists, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as well as for CRPC, and point towards novel therapeutic strategies. The understanding of individualized adaptation processes in PCa will lead to individualized treatment options in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number34
Pages (from-to)35542-35555
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2015


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