External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution-adapting delivery to natural movement-a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and patient realignment. Treatment planning issues that arise when the patient and internal target are mobile. Integrated motion-adaptive systems in clinical use or at advanced stages of development. System control functions essential to any therapy device operating in a near-autonomous manner with limited human interaction. Necessary motion-detection methodology, repositioning techniques, and approaches to interpreting and responding to target movement data in real time. Medical therapy with external beams of radiation began as a two-dimensional technology in a three-dimensional world. However, in all but a limited number of scenarios, movement introduces the fourth dimension of time to the treatment problem. Motion-adaptive radiation therapy represents a truly four-dimensional solution to an inherently four-dimensional problem. From these chapters, readers will gain not only an understanding of the technical aspects and capabilities of motion adaptation but also practical clinical insights into planning and carrying out various types of motion-adaptive radiotherapy treatment.