Background Local cold therapy for burns is generally recommended to relief pain and limit tissue damage, however, there is limited data of its physiological benefit. This study aimed to evaluate pathophysiological effects of cold therapy in superficial burn on microcirculation, edema formation, and histomorphology. Methods In 12 volunteers (8f, 4m; aged 30.4 ± 14.1 years) circumscribed superficial burn was induced on both hand back and either left untreated as control (control-group) or treated by local-cold-application (cold-treatment-group). Prior to burn (t0), immediately (t1), 15 min (t2), and 30 min (t3) following cold therapy, following parameter was evaluated using intravital-microscopy; epidermal-thickness (ET), granular-cell-size (GCS), individual-blood-cell-flow (IBCF), and functional-capillary-density (FCD). Results Both ET and GCS increased significantly more in control-group and slightly in cold-treatment-group in t1, while turns to insignificant t2 onwards. IBCF and FCD raised up in control-group compared to dramatically decrease in cold-treatment-group in t1. In t2 both parameter remains in control-group and increased in cold-treatment-group. Comparison of both groups for IBCF and FCD indicates significant difference in t1 and t2, however, insignificant in t0 and t3. Conclusions Microcirculation, edema formation, and histomorphology of superficial burn has been significantly influenced through immediate cold therapy, however, this alterations are transient and turns to ineffective after 30 min.