Background/Aim: The value of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for high rectal cancers is controversial. This study compared surgery plus neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy to surgery alone. Patients and Methods: Fifty-two patients with stage II/III high rectal cancers treated with surgery plus neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy were matched (1:4) to 208 patients treated with surgery alone. Matching criteria included age (≤65 vs. >65 years), gender and UICC-stage (II vs. III). These criteria were identical in all five patients used for each 1:4 matching. Both groups were compared for overall survival (OS). Results: On univariate analyses, age ≤65 years (p<0.001) was significantly associated with improved OS. A trend towards improved OS was found for neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (p=0.078) and UICC-stage II (p=0.060). On multivariate analysis, age (p<0.001) remained significant, and neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy showed a trend towards better OS (p=0.073). Conclusion: Given the limitations of this study, the results showed that neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy may improve OS in patients with stage II/III high rectal cancers. However, these results need to be verified in a prospective randomized trial.