Preterm newborns are extremely vulnerable to morbidities, complications, and death. Preterm birth is a global public health problem due to its socioeconomic burden. Nurturing preterm newborns is a critical medical issue because they have limited nutrient stores and it is difficult to establish enteral feeding, which leads to inadequate growth frequently associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides nutrients to preterm newborns, but its biochemical effects are not completely known. To study the effect of PN treatment on preterm newborns, an untargeted metabolomic 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay was performed on 107 urine samples from 34 hospitalized patients. Multivariate data (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis OPLS-DA, parallel factor analysis PARAFAC-2) and univariate analyses were used to identify the association of specific spectral data with different nutritional types (NTs) and gestational ages. Our results revealed changes in the metabolic profile related to the NT, with the tricarboxylic acid cycle and galactose metabolic pathways being the most impacted pathways. Low citrate and succinate levels, despite higher glucose relative urinary concentrations, seem to constitute the metabolic profile found in the studied critically ill preterm newborns who received PN, indicating an energetic dysfunction that must be taken into account for better nutritional management.