828 kHz retinal imaging with an 840 nm Fourier domain mode locked laser

Marie Klufts, Alejandro Martínez Jiménez, Simon Lotz, Muhammad Asim Bashir, Tom Pfeiffer, Alexander Mlynek, Wolfgang Wieser, Alexander Chamorovskiy, Adrian Bradu, Adrian Podoleanu, Robert Huber


This paper presents a Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) laser centered around
840 nm. It features a bidirectional sweep repetition rate of 828 kHz and a spectral bandwidth of
40 nm. An axial resolution of ∼9.9 µm in water and a 1.4 cm sensitivity roll-off are achieved.
Utilizing a complex master-slave (CMS) recalibration method and due to a sufficiently high
sensitivity of 84.6 dB, retinal layers of the human eye in-vivo can be resolved during optical
coherence tomography (OCT) examination. The developed FDML laser enables acquisition
rates of 3D-volumes with a size of 200 × 100 × 256 voxels in under 100 milliseconds. Detailed
information on the FDML implementation, its challenging design tasks, and OCT images obtained
with the laser are presented in this paper.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBiomed. Opt. Express
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)6493-6508
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 01.12.2023

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