Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs are, alongside tamoxifen, one of the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of pre-/perimenopausal endocrine-responsive breast cancer. Goserelin, as a principal agent of this class of drugs, is mainly investigated in clinical trials. The indirect comparison of goserelin with tamoxifen as a single drug in the adjuvant setting showed similar efficacy. Furthermore, goserelin is as effective as cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy, and total endocrine blockade as a combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and tamoxifen showed a comparable benefit with anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. Goserelin administered after cessation of chemotherapy leads to a further improvement and may be equieffective as tamoxifen or a combination of both. Data concerning taxane-based and dose-dense chemotherapy as well as combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs with third-generation aromatase inhibitors are still lacking (ongoing suppression of ovarian function, tamoxifen and exemestane, and premenopausal endocrine-responsive chemotherapy trials). Moreover, duration of therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (2-3 years or longer) is still a matter of debate. Palliative endocrine treatment is standard in the first-line therapy of patients without life-threatening disease and endocrine-responsive breast cancer. Treatment decisions depend upon adjuvant endocrine pretreatment. Clinical data regarding ovarian protection by synchronous use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in young breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are incoherent.