The prognostic value of tumor necrosis in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases

Kristina Martens*, Thekla Meyners, Dirk Rades, Volker Tronnier, Matteo Mario Bonsanto, Dirk Petersen, Jürgen Dunst, Kathrin Dellas

*Korrespondierende/r Autor/-in für diese Arbeit
5 Zitate (Scopus)


Background: This retrospective study investigated the outcome of patients with brain metastases after radiosurgery with special emphasis on prognostic impact of visible intratumoral necrosis on survival and local control.Methods: From 1998 through 2008, 149 patients with brain metastases from solid tumors were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy at Luebeck University. Median age was 58.4 years with 11%, 78%, 10% in recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classes I, II, III, respectively. 70% had 1 metastasis, 29% 2-3 metastases, 2 patients more than 3 metastases, 71% active extracranial disease. Median volume of metastatic lesions was 4.7 cm3, median radiosurgery dose 22 Gy (single fraction). 71% of patients received additional whole-brain irradiation (WBI). All patients were analyzed regarding survival, local, distant failure and prognostic factors, side effects and changes in neurologic symptoms after radiotherapy. The type of contrast-enhancement in MR imaging was also analyzed; metastatic lesions were classified as containing necrosis if they appeared as ring-enhancing with central areas of no or minimal contrast enhancement.Results: Median survival was 7.0 months with 1-year and 5-year survival rates of 33% and 0.4%, respectively. Tumor necrosis (ring-enhancement) was visible on pretreatment MRI scans in 56% of all lesions and lesions with necrosis were larger than non-necrotic lesions (6.7 cm3 vs. 3.2 cm3, p = 0.01). Patients with tumor necrosis had a median survival of 5.4 months, patients without tumor necrosis 7.2 months. Local control rate in the irradiated volume was 70%, median survival without local failure 17.8 months. Control in the brain outside the irradiated volume was 60%, median survival without distant failure 14.0 months. Significant prognostic factors for overall survival were KPS (p = 0.001), presence of tumor necrosis on pretreatment MRI (p = 0.001) with RPA-class and WBI reaching marginal significance (each p = 0.05). Prognostic impact of tumor necrosis remained significant if only smaller tumors with a volume below 3.5 cm3 (p = 0.03). Side effects were rare, only one patient suffered from serious acute side effects.Conclusions: Results of this retrospective study support that stereotactic radiotherapy is an effective treatment option for patients with metastatic brain lesions. The prognostic impact of visible tumor necrosis (ring-enhancement) on pretreatment MRI scans should be further investigated.

ZeitschriftRadiation Oncology
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 03.07.2013


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