In schizophrenia patients negative symptoms and cognitive impairment often persist despite treatment with second generation antipsychotics leading to reduced quality of life and psychosocial functioning. One core cognitive deficit is impaired working memory (WM) suggesting malfunctioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to transiently facilitate or consolidate neuronal processes. Pilot studies using rTMS have demonstrated improvement of psychopathology in other psychiatric disorders, but a systematic investigation of working memory effects outlasting the stimulation procedure has not been performed so far. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of a 3-week high frequency active or sham 10 Hz rTMS on cognition, specifically on working memory, in schizophrenia patients (n=25) in addition to antipsychotic therapy and in healthy controls (n=22). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare activation patterns during verbal WM (letter 2-back task) before and after 3-weeks treatment with rTMS. Additionally, other cognitive tasks were conducted. 10 Hz rTMS was applied over the left posterior middle frontal gyrus (EEG electrode location F3) with an intensity of 110% of the individual resting motor threshold (RMT) over a total of 15 sessions. Participants recruited the common fronto- parietal and subcortical WM network. Multiple regression analyses revealed no significant activation differences over time in any contrast or sample. According to the ANOVAs for repeated measures performance remained without alterations in all groups. This is the first fMRI study that has systematically investigated this topic within a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, contrasting the effects in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.