[Sk2 guidelines"diagnosis and therapy of snoring in adults" : compiled by the sleep medicine working group of the German Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery].

B A Stuck, A Dreher, C Heiser, M Herzog, T Kuhnel, J T Maurer, H Pistner, H Sitter, A Steffen, T Verse


These guidelines aim to facilitate high quality medical care of adults with snoring problems. The guidelines were devised for application in both in- and outpatient environments and are directed primarily at all those concerned with the diagnosis and therapy of snoring. According to the AWMF three-level concept, these represent S2k guidelines.A satisfactory definition of snoring does not currently exist. Snoring is the result of vibration of soft tissue structures in narrow regions of the upper airway during breathing while asleep. Ultimately, these vibrations are caused by the sleep-associated decrease in muscle tone in the area of the upper airway dilator muscles. A multitude of risk factors for snoring have been described and its occurrence is multifactorial. Data relating to the frequency of snoring vary widely, depending on the way in which the data are collected. Snoring is usually observed in middle-aged individuals and affected males predominate. Clinical diagnosis of snoring should comprise a free evaluation of the patient's medical history. Where possible this should also involve their bed partner and the case history can be complimented by questionnaires. To determine the airflow relevant structures, a clinical examination of the nose should be performed. This examination may also include nasal endoscopy. Examination of the oropharynx is particularly important and should be performed. The larynx and the hypopharynx should be examined. The size of the tongue and the condition of the mucous membranes should be recorded as part of the oral cavity examination, as should the results of a dental assessment. Facial skeleton morphology should be assessed for orientation purposes. Technical examinations may be advisable in individual cases. In the instance of suspected sleep-related breathing disorders, relevant comorbidities or where treatment for snoring has been requested, an objective sleep medicine examination should be performed. Snoring is not-at least as we currently understand it-a disease associated with a medical threat; therefore there is currently no medical necessity to treat the condition. All overweight patients with snoring problems should strive to lose weight. If snoring is associated with the supine position, positional therapy can be considered. Some cases of snoring can be appropriately treated using an intraoral device. Selected minimally invasive surgical procedures on the soft palate can be recommended to treat snoring, provided that examinations have revealed a suitable anatomy. The choice of technique is determined primarily by the individual anatomy. At an appropriate interval after the commencement or completion a therapeutic measure, a follow-up examination should be conducted to assess the success of the therapy and to aid in the planning of any further treatments.
ISBN (Print)0017-6192
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 11.2013


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